Mechanical forces regulate diverse cellular functions, and integrin receptor-based adhesive complexes have emerged as central players in force transmission from the extracellular matrix (ECM) to the cytoskeleton and conversion of forces into biochemical signals. These adhesive signals direct cell fate and regulate tissue formation, homeostasis, repair, and even pathogenesis. Cell adhesion to ECM components is primarily mediated by the integrin receptor family.
Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from somatic cells via transduction with the Yamanaka factors represents a highly promising strategy to produce auto- and allogenic cell sources for therapeutic strategies as well as novel models of human development and disease. This promising stem cell technology is severely limited by low reprogramming efficiency (0.001-1%), time- and skill-intensive culture to maintain pure populations, and suboptimal directed differentiation protocols.
Inflammatory responses to implanted biomedical devices severely limit the biological performance of various devices in millions of patients. Furthermore, device-associated infections, such as catheter-associated bloodstream and surgical site infections, result in substantial morbidity and mortality and raise the cost of caring for patients.